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Think of a hard choice you'll face in the near future. It might be between two careers — artist and accountant — or places to live — the city or the country — or even between two people to marry — you could marry Betty or you could marry Lolita. Or it might be a choice about whether to have children, to have anailing(an ailing company,organization, or economy is having a lot of problems and is not successful)parent move in with you, to raise your child in a religion that your partner lives by but leaves you cold. Or whether to donate your life savings to charity.

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Chances are, the hard choice you thought of was something big, somethingmomentous(a momentous event, change, or decision is very important because it will have a great influence on the future.), something that matters to you. Hard choices seem to be occasions for agonizing, hand-wringing, thegnashing of teeth(to be very angry or unhappy about something, or to move your teeth against each other so that they make a noise, especially because you are unhappy or angry.).But I think we've misunderstood hard choices and the role they play in our lives. Understanding hard choices uncovers a hidden power each of us possesses.


Collocations with Go with Prepositions Go

What makes a choice hard is the way the alternativesrelate(v.if two things relate, they are connected in some way.). In any easy choice, one alternative is better than the other. In a hard choice, one alternative is better in some ways, the other alternative is better in other ways, and neither is better than the otheroverall(considering or including everything.). Youagonize(to think about a difficult decision very carefully and with a lot of effort.)over whether to stay in your current job in the city oruproot(to make someone leave their home for a new place, especially when this is difficult or upsetting.)your life for more challenging work in the country, because staying is better in some ways, moving is better in others, and neither is better than the other overall.

Trevor Noah Recalls the Day He Pooped in the House — and His Mom Thought a Demon Did It!看点:


南非黑人区的生活: 母系;信仰;贫穷;下有对策



We shouldn't think that all hard choices are big. Let's say you're deciding what to have for breakfast. You could have highfiber(the parts of plants that you eat but cannot digest. Fibre helps to keep you healthy by moving food quickly through your body.)bran(the crushed outer skin of wheat or a similar grain that is separated from the rest of the grain when making white flour.)cereal(a breakfast food made from grain and usually eaten with milk.)or a chocolatedonut(a small round cake, often in the form of a ring.). Suppose what matters in the choice is tastiness and healthfulness. The cereal is better for you, the donut tastes way better, but neither is better than the other overall, a hard choice. Realizing that small choices can also be hard, may make big hard choices seem lessintractable(an intractable problem is very difficult to deal with or solve). After all, we manage to figure out what to have for breakfast, so maybe we can figure out whether to stay in the city or uproot for the new job in the country.




Language brings with it an identity and a culture, or at least the perception of it. A shared language says “We’re the same.” A language barrier says “We’re different.” The architects of apartheid understood this. Part of the effort to divide black people was to make sure we were separated not just physically but by language as well...

The great thing about language is that you can just as easily use it to do the opposite:convince people that they are the same...

If you’re racist and you meet someone who doesn’t look like you, the fact that he can’t speak like you reinforces your racist preconceptions: He’s different, less intelligent. A brilliant scientist can come over the border from Mexico to live in America, but if he speaks in broken English, people say, “Eh, I don’t trust this guy.” “But he’s a scientist.” “In Mexican science, maybe. I don’t trust him.”

However, if the person who doesn’t look like you speaks like you, your brain short-circuits because your racism program has none of those instructions in the code. “Wait,wait,” your mind says, “the racism code says if he doesn’t look like me he isn’t like me, but the language code says if he speaks like me he…is like me?Something is off here. I can’t figure this out.”


We also shouldn't think that hard choices are hard because we are stupid. When I graduated from college, I couldn't decide between two careers, philosophy and law. I really loved philosophy. There are amazing things you can learn as a philosopher, and all from the comfort of an armchair. But I came from amodest(someone who is modest does not want to talk about their abilities or achievements.)immigrant family where my idea ofluxury(very great comfort and pleasure, such as you get from expensive food, beautiful houses, cars etc.)was having apork(the meat from pigs/ government money spent in a particular area in order to get political advantages-used to show disapproval.)tongue andjelly(a soft sweet food made from fruit juice and gelatin.)sandwich in my school lunchbox, so the thought of spending my whole life sitting around in armchairs just thinking ...Well, that struck me as theheight(how tall someone or something is.)ofextravagance (spending or costing a lot of money, especially more than is necessary or more than you can afford.)andfrivolity(behaviour or activities that are nor serious aor sensible, especially when you should be serious or sensible.). So I got out my yellow pad, I drew a line down the middle, and I tried my best to think of the reasons for and against each alternative. I remember thinking to myself, if only I knew what my life in each career would be like. If only God or Netflix would send me a DVD of my two possible future careers, I'd be set. I'd compare them side by side, I'd see that one was better, and the choice would be easy.


Go ahead

But I got no DVD, and because I couldn't figure out which was better, I did what many of us do in hard choices: I took the safest option. Fear of being an unemployed philosopher led me to become a lawyer,and as I discovered, lawyering didn't quite fit. It wasn't who I was. So now I'm a philosopher, and I study hard choices, and I can tell you, that fear of the unknown, while a commonmotivational(ergerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it.)default(to not do something that you are supposed to do, especially that you are legally supposed to do.)in dealing with hard choices,rests on(to be based on something.)a misconception of them. It's a mistake to think that in hard choices, one alternative really is better than the other, but we're too stupid to know which, and since we don't know which, we might as well take the least risky option. Even taking two alternatives side by side with full information, a choice can still be hard. Hard choices are hard not because of us or our ignorance; they're hard because there is no best option.


something (such as an organization, belief, idea, or goal) that a group or people support or fight for

Their fathers were in exile, fighting for the cause.

I'm willing to donate money as long as it's for a good/worthy cause.


Now, if there's no best option, if the scales don't tip in favor of one alternative over another, then surely the alternatives must be equally good. So maybe the right thing to say in hard choices is that they're between equally good options. But that can't be right. If alternatives are equally good, you should just flip a coin between them, and it seems a mistake to think, here's how you should decide between careers,places to live, people to marry: Flip a coin.


very small

Everyone in the township bought things in minute quantities because nobody had any money.

There were minute particles of dust in the air.

The test detected minute amounts of contamination.

The equipment is able to detect the minutest errors.

Go on

There's another reason for thinking that hard choices aren't choices between equally good options.Suppose you have a choice between two jobs: you could be aninvestment(the use of money to get a profit or to make a business activity successful, or the money that is used)banker or agraphic(connected with or including drawing ,printing ,or designing.)artist.There are a variety of things that matter in such a choice, like the excitement of the work, achieving financial security, having time to raise a family, and so on. Maybe the artist's career puts you onthe cutting edge(the newest and most exciting stage in the development of something.)of new forms ofpictorial(using or relating ro paintings, drawings, or phorographs.)expression. Maybe the banking career puts you on the cutting edge of new forms of financialmanipulation(to make someone think and behave exactly as you want them to, by skilfully deceiving or influencing them.).


To have airs is to be condescending or arrogant — in other words, to act like you think you're better than other people. If you put on airs, you'll find it hard to make friends.

When we shit we forget our airs and our graces, we forget how famous or how rich we are.

※In British English, the phrase airs and graces describes an overly superior or proud way of behaving.

She's very rich, but she doesn't give herself any airs and graces. = She doesn't have any airs and graces. = She doesn't put on any airs and graces.


Imagine the two jobs however you like, so that neither is better than the other.


Go in

Now suppose we improve one of them, a bit. Suppose the bank,wooing(to try to persuade someone to do something such as buy something from you, vote for you, or work for you-used in news reports.)you, adds 500 dollars a month to your salary. Does the extra money now make the banking job better than the artist one? Not necessarily. A higher salary makes the banking job better than it was before, but it might not be enough to make being a banker better than being an artist. But if an improvement in one of the jobs doesn't make it better than the other, then the two original jobs could not have been equally good. If you start with two things that are equally good, and you improve one of them, it now must be better than the other. That's not the case with options in hard choices.

1.ˈreckon with sb/sth

If you are a person/force to be reckoned with or a person/force to reckon with, you are someone who is strong and cannot be ignored.

The only semi-regular male figure in my life was my grandfather, my mother’s father, who was a force to be reckoned with.

They were already a political force to be reckoned with.

When he won his first three matches, the other players realized that he was a force/man to be reckoned with.


So now we've got a puzzle. We've got two jobs. Neither is better than the other, nor are they equally good. So how are we supposed to choose? Something seems to have gone wrong here. Maybe the choice itself is problematic, and comparison is impossible. But that can't be right. It's not like we're trying to choose between two things that can't be compared. We're weighing the merits of two jobs, after all,not the merits of the number nine and a plate of fried eggs. A comparison of the overall merits of two jobsis something we can make, and one we often do make.

2.mother hen

a person who worries about, cares for, or watches over other people in a way that is annoying or unwanted

Sibongile was a powerhouse, a strong woman in every sense, big-chested, the mother hen.

a football coach who fusses over his players like a mother hen

Go back

I think the puzzle arises because of anunreflective(轻率的)assumption we make about value. Weunwittingly(in a way that shows you do not know or realize something.)assume that values like justice, beauty, kindness, areakin to(akin to something very similar to something.)scientific quantities, like length,mass(a large amount of a substance which does not have a definite or regular shape.)and weight. Take anycomparative(you use comparative to show that you are judging something against a previous or different situation.)question not involving value, such as which of two suitcases is heavier.There are only three possibilities. The weight of one is greater, lesser or equal to the weight of the other.Properties like weight can be represented by real numbers — one, two, three and so on — and there are only three possible comparisons between any two real numbers. One number is greater, lesser, or equal to the other. Not so with values. As post-Enlightenment creatures, we tend to assume that scientific thinking holds the key to everything of importance in our world, but the world of value is different from the world of science. Thestuff(used when you are talking about things such as substances, materials, or groups of objects when you do not know what they are called, or it is not important to say exactly what they are.)of the one world can be quantified by real numbers. The stuff of the other world can't. We shouldn't assume that the world of is, of lengths and weights, has the same structure as the world of ought, of what we should do.

3.live up to

If someone or something lives up to what they were expected to be, they are as good as they were expected to be.

He was trying to live up to this image of what he thought a husband should be, dominant, controlling.

He has found it difficult to live up to his name/reputation. [=to be as good/successful as people think he is or should be]

Their vacation didn't live up to their expectations. [=their vacation wasn't as good as they expected it to be]


So if what matters to us — a child'sdelight(a feeling of great pleasure ans satisfaction.)cabet228亚洲城,, the love you have for your partner — can't be represented by real numbers, then there's no reason to believe that in choice, there are only three possibilities — that one alternative is better, worse or equal to the other. We need to introduce a new, fourth relation beyond being better, worse or equal, that describes what's going on in hard choices. I like to say that the alternatives are "on a par." When alternativesare on a par(to be at the same level or standard.), it may matter very much which you choose,but one alternative isn't better than the other. Rather, the alternatives are in the same neighborhood of value, in the sameleague(a group of sports teams or players who play games against each other to see who is best.)of value, while at the same time being very different in kind of value. That's why the choice is hard.

4.scream bloody murder

to scream, yell, or complain in a very loud or angry way

I was in the yard and Dinky came running out of the house screaming bloody murder.

His political opponents screamed bloody murder when he was appointed to office.

1.Go up there

Understanding hard choices in this way uncovers something about ourselves we didn't know. Each of us has the power to create reasons. Imagine a world in which every choice you face is an easy choice, that is, there's always a best alternative. If there's a best alternative, then that's the one you should choose,because part of beingrational(rational thoughts,decisions etc are based on reasons rather that emothions.)is doing the better thing rather than the worse thing, choosing what you have most reason to choose. In such a world, we'd have most reason to wear black socks instead of pink socks, to eatcereal(cereal or breakfast cereal is a food made from grain, It is mixed with milk and eaten for breakfast.)instead of donuts, to live in the city rather than the country, to marry Betty instead of Lolita. A world full of only easy choices wouldenslave(to make someone a slave.)us to reasons.

5.bundle sb up (in sth)

If you bundle up, you dress in a lot of warm clothes, usually because the weather is very cold. If you bundle someone up, you dress them in a lot of warm clothes.

She’d sit in the kitchen next to the coal stove, bundled up in long skirts and head scarves, blankets over her shoulders.

After the coffee we bundled up and walked down to the river...

The next morning, Franklin and Eleanor bundled up the baby and carried him to New York...

I spent much of my time bundled up in sweaters in an effort to keep warm.


When you think about it,

6.no accident

You begin a sentence with 'it's no accident' if you want to suggest that something was done deliberately or has a logical explanation, although it might give the impression of having happened by chance.

The fact that I grew up in a world run by women was no accident.

It is no accident that the assistant he hired is so good-looking. [=he deliberately chose a good-looking person to be his assistant]

It is no accident that men fill most of the top jobs in nursing, while women remain on the lower grades.

We use this collocation when we are talking about another place we will go visit that is in a direction above where we are。


7.hold sth together

If you hold a group of people together, you help them to live or work together without arguing, although they may have different aims, attitudes, or interests.

Women held the community together.

The coach hopes to hold the team together for at least one more season.

Her 13-year-old daughter is holding the family together...

...the political balance which holds together the government...


it'snuts(crazy)to believe that the reasons given to youdictated(an order, rule, or principle that you have to obey.)that you had most reason topursue(If you pursue an activity, interest, or plan, you carry it out or follow it.)theexact(completely correct in every detail.)hobbies you do, to live in the exact house you do, to work at the exact job you do. Instead, you faced alternatives that were on a par — hard choices — and you made reasons for yourself to choose that hobby, that house and that job. When alternatives are on a par, the reasons given to us, the ones thatdetermine(If a particulat factor determines the nature of a thing or event, it causes it to be of a particular kind.)whether we're making a mistake, are silent as to what to do. It's here, in the space of hard choices, that we get to exercise ournormative(describing or establishing a set of rules or standards of behaviour.)power — the power to create reasons for yourself, to make yourself into the kind of person for whom country living is preferable to the urban life.

8.get through to

to make someone understand what you are trying to say

Yes, the Bible was not written in English, but the Bible came to South Africa in English so to us it’s in English. Which made my prayers the best prayers because English prayers get answered first. How do we know this? Look at white people. Clearly they’re getting through to the right person.

I feel I’m not getting through to some of the kids in my class.

I haven’t been to New York yet, but I am planning to go up there next spring。

When we choose between options that are on a par, we can do something really ratherremarkable(someone or something that is remarkable is unusual or special in a way that makes people notice them and be surprised or impressed.). We can put our very selves behind an option. Here's where I stand. Here's who I am, I am for banking. I am for chocolate donuts.

9.add to this/that

Phrases likeadd to this/thatandadded to this/thatare often used informally to introduce a statement about something that makes a thing or situation better, worse, more important, etc.

Add to that Matthew 19:14. “Suffer little children to come unto me,” Jesus said, “for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” So if a child is praying in English? To White Jesus? That’s a powerful combination right there.

We were given little time to finish.Add to thisthe fact that nobody helped us, and you can understand why we were angry.

We were short of money.Added to that, we were lost!


This response in hard choices is a rational response, but it's notdictated(to tell someone exactly what they must do or how they must behave.)by reasons given to us. Rather, it's supported by reasons created by us. When we create reasons for ourselves to become this kind of person rather than that, we wholeheartedly become the people that we are. You might say that we become the authors of our own lives.

10.on the outs (with sb)

in an unfriendly or bad relationship:no longer friendly or together

My aunt and cousins would be there whenever she was on the outs with Dinky.

There's a rumor that she and her husband are on the outs.

She is on the outs with her husband.

Wilson is on the outs with his family because of his relationship with that woman.

Your bag is upstairs; I will go up there and get it for you。

So when we face hard choices, we shouldn't beat our head against a wall trying to figure out which alternative is better. There is no best alternative. Instead of looking for reasons out there, we should be looking for reasons in here: Who am I to be? You might decide to be a pink sock-wearing, cereal-loving, country-living banker, and I might decide to be a black sock-wearing, urban, donut-loving artist. What we do in hard choices is very much up to each of us.

11.roll out

to make (something that has been rolled into the shape of a tube) long and flat again

The adults each had their own foam mattresses, and there was one big one that we’d roll out into the middle, and the kids slept on that.

He rolled out [=unrolled] the sleeping bags.


Now, people who don't exercise their normative powers in hard choices aredrifters(a person who moves from one job or place to another with nor real purpose.). We all know people like that. I drifted into being a lawyer. I didn't put myagency(a business that provides a particular service for people or roganizations.)behind lawyering. I wasn't for lawyering.Drifters allow the world to write the story of their lives. They let mechanisms of reward and punishment —pats on the head, fear, the easiness of an option — to determine what they do. So the lesson of hard choices:reflect(if a person or a thing is reflected in a mirror, glass, or water, you can see an image of the person or thing on the surface of the mirror, glass, or water.)on what you can put your agency behind, on what you can be for, and through hard choices, become that person.

12.aspire to sth/do sth

to want to have or achieve something (such as a particular career or level of success)

Sadly, no matter how fancy you made your house, there was one thing you could never aspire to improve: your toilet. There was no indoor running water, just one communal outdoor tap and one outdoor toilet shared by six or seven houses.

He says he never aspired to become famous.

little girls who aspire to play professional basketball

Both young men aspire to careers in medicine. [=both young men want to have careers in medicine]

people who aspire to home ownership [=people who want to own their own homes]

2.Go down there

Far from being sources of agony anddread(to feel axious or worried about something that is going to happen or may happen.), hard choices areprecious(something that is precious is valuable and important and should not be wasted or used without care.)opportunities for us to celebrate what is special about the human condition, that the reasons that govern our choices as correct or incorrect sometimes run out, and it is here, in the space of hard choices, that we have the power to create reasons for ourselves to become the distinctive people that we are. And that's why hard choices are not acurse(a word or sentence used to ask God or magical power to do something bad to someone or something.)but agodsend(something good that happens to you when you really need it.).

13.in the zone

in a state in which you feel confident and are performing at your


It takes a minute to get the first shit out of the way and get in the zone and get comfortable.

When I'm in the zone, writing is the most satisfying thing in the world.


14.dart around

adv./prep.to move suddenly and quickly in a particular direction

Her eyes were wide open, cloudy white and darting around the room.

Her eyes darted around the room, looking for Greg.

We use this collocation when we are talking about another place we will go that is in a direction below where we are。

15.curl up

to lie or sit with your back bent forward and with your legs pulled up close to your body

Then I tiptoed back to the other room, curled up on the mattress on the floor, and pretended to be asleep.

She curled up on the couch for a nap.

It's a good night to stay home and curl up with a book and a cup of tea.


16.be none the wiser/not be any the ˈwiser

not knowing or understanding anything more about something;

to not know or find out about sth bad that sb has done

The shit was done, no outhouse involved, and Koko was none the wiser.

The investigation has been going on for months, and we're still none the wiser about the true cause of the accident. [=we still don't know anything more about the true cause]

I've read the instructions, but I'm still none the wiser.

If you put the money back, no one will be any the wiser.

I like the weather in Florida during the winter; I think I will go down there this year。

17.be dying for sth/to do sth

wanting to have do something so much that you do not want to wait

Koko, still blind, still stuck in her chair, was dying to know what was happening.

I’m dying for a cup of coffee.

We’re dying to meet your new boyfriend.


18.all hell broke loose

suddenly there was a lot of noise, arguing, fighting or confusion

Once my mom found the turd, all hell broke loose.This was serious.

•There was a loud bang and then all hell broke loose.

I can hear my cell phone ringing downstairs, can you go down there and get it for me?

19.all hands on deck

used for saying that everyone must help because there is an emergency

It was all hands on deck, time for action.

There are 30 people coming to dinner tonight, so it's all hands on deck.


20.drive out

to cause or force (someone or something) to leave

The commotion didn’t stop there because when there’s a demon around, the whole community has to join together to drive it out.

They drove out the invaders.

The family was driven out of the neighborhood by rising real estate prices.

3.Go on through

21.come clean

to tell the truth about what happened:to stop hiding the truth

I knew there was no demon, but there was no way I could come clean.

Eventually she came clean and helped the police recover the goods she'd stolen.

He's finally come clean about his role in the scandal.

It was time to come clean with my mother.


22.Honesty is the best policy.


The hiding I would have to endure? Good Lord. Honesty was never the best policy when it came to a hiding. I kept quiet.

Used to verbally invite someone to pass through an entrance into a place。

23.wrap up

to finish or end (something)

Eventually I wrapped it up and sat back down.

Let's wrap this meeting up.

The teacher quickly wrapped up her lecture toward the end of class.

The meeting wrapped up [=ended] at four o'clock.

Seeing Sticht was keeping him from his golf game, and he hoped they could wrap it up quickly.


24.subject sb/sth to sth

to cause or force (someone or something) to experience (something harmful, unpleasant, etc.)

When you pray, He stops and He takes His time and He listens, and I had subjected Him to two hours of old grannies praying when I knew that with all the pain and suffering in the world He had more important things to deal with than my shit.

They are suspected of subjecting their children to abuse. [=of abusing their children]

The test involved subjecting the sample to intense heat.

— often used as (be) subjected to

The prisoners were subjected to torture.

During the hurricane, many buildings were subjected to [=many buildings experienced] 100 mile-per-hour winds.

No one should have to be subjected to my uncle's bad jokes.

His argument was subjected to careful analysis. [=was carefully analyzed]

Welcome to my party! Please, go on through, everyone is inside。

25.dub into

to replace the original recorded speech in a movie or television show with speech recorded in another language

When I was growing up we used to get American TVshows rebroadcast on our stations: Doogie Howser, M.D.; Murder, She Wrote; Rescue 911 with William Shatner. Most of them were dubbed into African languages.

He was hired to dub the dialogue for a foreign film.

— often used as(be) dubbed

The film was dubbed in/into French and Spanish.

an American movie dubbed into Italian


4.Go out there


This collocation has a more figurative meaning; it can be used to refer to the sea, an audience of some type or another thing that is big。


The sea is very rough today; I wouldn’t go out there!


This is your concert, now go out there and sing your best!


There is a lot of competition in the market for smartphones, so go out there and do your best to show people how ours is different。


5.Go over there


Similar to go up there or go down there, it refers to a place in any general direction。

与go up there和go down there相似,它可以用来指去任何方向的一个地点。

I forgot my book at the office; I will have to go over there and retrieve it。


The flowers are ready to be picked up from the florist, can you go over there and get them for me?


6.Go from there


Again this collocation is about a place but used to describe the verb go in the future。


After we stay in Rome, we will go from there to Venice。


Where will you go from there?


Unique Collocations with Go


1.Go check / go look


To review or examine something。


I think the cake has finished baking, let me go check。


Is someone at the front door? Can you go look for me?


2.Go home


Usually said in a statement about the person or as an order to someone。


I am going to go home now。


Go home, Tom!


3.Let’s go。


Used as a statement for when you leave a place。

Let’s go用来表示要离开某个地方。

The movie has finished, let’s go。


4.Go see


To explore or investigate。


What was that noise? I’ll go see。


5.Go figure


An expression used when you find something to be incredible, amazing。


It was unbelievable how the magician made the rabbit disappear, go figure!


6.Go Green


This collocation has become popular in recent years because it means to become more environmentally friendly by doing things like recycling。


I just bought a new electric car because I want to go green。


7.Go crazy / Go mad


An expression used for when a person becomes very angry or hysterical about something。


Did you see how angry she become, I have never seen her go crazy/mad like that!


8.Go get ‘em (go get them)


A common collocation, expression, to use in sports and to motivate a person to do well。


It’s your turn to kick the ball。 Go get ‘em!


9.Go through me


A threat of violence by one person if the other person does something the first person doesn’t like。


If you want to steal my money, you will have to go through me。


10.Go to hell


In many countries, the word hell is considered to be a profanity or swear word。 Many religious, especially Christian religions believe hell to be where bad people go to be tormented forever once they die。 Therefore, many people use this expression when they want to insult someone else。


My boss got so angry with the customer he told him to go to hell!


11.Go astray


When someone makes a mistake or literally goes in the wrong direction, we can use this collocation。


It was sad to see him go astray when he started taking drugs。


Follow the map, so you don’t go astray。


12.Go bankrupt


Use this collocation as an expression or description about when a person loses all of their money or is at risk of losing all of their money。


If you keep buying expensive things, I will go bankrupt。


We are going to go bankrupt unless we can make more money。


13.Go online


To use the internet。


Let’s go online to find a place we can go on vacation。




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